This was the only reason to go to McDonald’s.

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25. Tinosaurs (1986)

Tinosaurs (1986)

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Via ebay.com

Cute and colorful, these PVC dinosaurs (and cave people?) were a little different than your average Happy Meal toy as they were not a tie-in product for a TV show or movie.

24. Popoids (1984)

Popoids (1984)

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Via ebay.com

These toys were just a series of stretchy and bendy tubes that basically allowed you to create a either a spider or an octopus. Although since the tubes had the consistency of a Squeezit bottle, you had to be careful not to stretch them too far for fear of ripping.

23. Ronald McDonald Cloth Doll (1984)

Ronald McDonald Cloth Doll (1984)

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Via etsy.com

A favorite since the 1970s, this toy was reintroduced in the 1980s to terrify a new generation of kids.

22. Halloween Pails (1985)

Halloween Pails (1985)

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Via sydlexia.com

Sure, these were the suckiest things you could use to carry on candy on Halloween night; the handle would usually painfully lodge itself deep into your hand under the weight of the candy — that is if it didn’t pop off. But since the pails had cool designs and were from McDonald’s, they were an ’80s kids essential.

21. Mickey’s Birthdayland Race Cars (1989)

Mickey's Birthdayland Race Cars (1989)

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Via ebay.com

In honor of Mickey’s 60th birthday, Disney and McDonald’s partnered up to release these awesome little pullback racers, which, bonus, also came with a box you could turn into a tunnel.

20. Stompers 4×4 (1986)

Stompers 4x4 (1986)

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Via route21.com

What made these so special you ask? Well, unlike regular cars or pull racers, these bad boys ran on their own power, or an AA battery to be exact. So all you had to do was sit back and watch it drive in a straight-ish line before crashing into a wall.

19. Cinderella’s Jaq and Gus Plush Christmas Ornaments (1987)

freddiescollectibles.com

freddiescollectibles.com

 

OK, so technically not a toy, but these mice were too cool to just hang on the Christmas tree. Also, I’m sure pretty sure they never really released Jaq, ‘cause I was stuck with, like, six Gus ornaments.

18. Astrosniks (1984)

Astrosniks (1984)

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Via ebay.com

These toys made the perfect villains for your Smurf figures.

17. Hot Wheels (1983)

Hot Wheels (1983)

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Via s40.photobucket.com

What’s better than a Hot Wheels car? A free one with your meal! You could NEVER have enough Hot Wheels.

16. Playmobil Figures (1982)

Playmobil Figures (1982)

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Via ebay.co.uk

Playmobil figures were usually the toys that rich kids played with, so getting one from McDonalds was like winning the lotto.

15. Fry Kids (1989)

Fry Kids (1989)

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Via ebay.com

These were exceptionally detailed for fast-food toys. They also didn’t look as much like fries as they did colorful mops.

14. Kissyfur (1987)

Kissyfur (1987)

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Via ebay.com

Mickey D’s was the only place you could get toys from this seriously underrated cartoon.

13. Bambi Figurines (1988)

Bambi Figurines (1988)

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Via pinterest.com

These toys were not only well made, but they also had various moving parts that made them infinitely posable. They also happened to have that distinct plastic smell that would never go away.

12. Berenstain Bears (1986)

Berenstain Bears (1986)

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Via etsy.com

Sure they got super dirty after the first time you played with them — thanks to their felt head and hands — but they were awesome and came with their own cool accessory. Also these things should’ve come with a warning that they were not meant for bath time.

11. McDonald’s Pullback Race Cars (1985)

McDonald's Pullback Race Cars (1985)

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Via etsy.com

What made these so special? First, they were perfectly sized and could easily fit into a child’s pocket. Second, their McDonald’s theme told all the other kids on the playground, “Yeah, my parents love and indulge me enough that they got me a Happy Meal.”

10. DuckTales Figures (1988)

DuckTales Figures (1988)

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Via ohnotheydidnt.livejournal.com

DuckTales was the must-see late ’80s cartoon and these Happy Meal toys were an essential. Just looking at them makes me want to break out into the theme song (woo-oo!).

9. Garfield Vehicles (1989)

Garfield Vehicles (1989)

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Via pinterest.com

In the ’80s Garfield — thanks in large part to his Saturday morning cartoon Garfield and Friends — was actually really cool and kids wanted to play with his toys. Although he is bit more active in these figures than he was on the show (or the comic).

8. Mac Tonight “Moon Man” Figures (1988)

Mac Tonight "Moon Man" Figures (1988)

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Via forum.earwolf.com

Let’s be honest, Mac Tonight was creepy as fuck! But these toys helped make him a little more bearable.

7. Oliver & Company (1988)

Oliver & Company (1988)

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Via etsy.com

Was there anything greater than a Happy Meal Disney film tie-in? NOPE. These were made even more special because they weren’t just ordinary Happy Meal figures, oh no, these were finger puppets.

6. Chip ‘n Dale Rescue Rangers Cars (1989)

Chip 'n Dale Rescue Rangers Cars (1989)

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Via etsy.com

Seriously, these things were great, not only were they cars, BUT you could interchange the parts (giving you hours of endless entertainment). The only thing that would have made them perfect was if you could actually pull the figures out.

5. McNugget Buddies (1988)

McNugget Buddies (1988)

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Via ebay.com

Where do I even begin? These things were awesome for various reasons. First, they were super unique. Second, they came with interchangeable accessories. Third, and most importantly, they were CHICKEN MCNUGGETS and every kid loved McNuggets.

4. The Little Mermaid (1989)

The Little Mermaid (1989)

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Via etsy.com

These were the most EPIC bath time toys you could ever have. I mean, where else could you truly recreate Ariel’s adventures?

3. Fraggle Rock (1988)

Fraggle Rock (1988)

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Via etsy.com

Every ’80s kid owned at least one of these. While Gobo might have been the most prized toy, it certainly wasn’t the best. That honor went to Wimbly, who also came with a Boober figure attached.

2. Muppet Babies (1987)

Muppet Babies (1987)

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Via ebay.com

These were amazing. First and foremost, they were toys associated with the greatest cartoon of all time. Secondly, they not only came with their own cars, but you could actually pull the figures out and switch them around.

1. Changeables (1987)

Changeables (1987)

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Via ebay.com

Seriously, what kid didn’t want to play with food that turned into a robot? Yes, they were essentially Transformer knockoffs, but they’re still the coolest and most epic toy line McDonald’s has ever released.

Read more: http://buzzfeed.com/briangalindo/the-25-greatest-happy-meal-toys-of-the-80s

Shrouded in mystery, ninjas have almost become more of an idea than an actual warrior. Hundreds of years ago though, in feudal Japan, ninjas were very active and very real. Not always good guys, not always bad guys, they were somewhat of a mercenary group carrying out assassinations and espionage for the highest bidder. Today, much of what we know about them is in fact little more than legend. If you’re not up to date, however, allow us to enlighten you. Here are 25 things you didn’t know about ninjas.

25. Ninjas tell time like bosses

Apart from the obvious skill of using the stars to tell time, apparently ninjas believed that the eyes of a cat are super sensitive. In fact, they believed them to be so sensitive that the cat’s eyes would reflect the movement of the sun and allow them to tell what time of the day it was. Of course just looking at the sun would be simpler, but would it be as cool?

24. Ninjas don’t get lost

In some ways ninjas are like boy scouts, they use seemingly useless things like tree stumps and Spanish moss to figure out other seemingly useless things like which way north is. Thus they can always figure out where they are at.

23. Ninjas rest on top of trees

There’s not much to really say about this one. They’re ninjas. It’s what they do.

22. Ninjas are survivalists

Trained since birth to survive on nothing but the skin of their teeth, ninjas know which berries are edible and they can find water by observing crazy things like ant behavior.

21. Ninjas carry crickets in their pocket

What better way to cover your already muffled footsteps than having a box of crickets chirping away in your pocket? In feudal Japan, those annoying insects were everywhere so they made for an assassin’s best friend.

20. Ninjas don’t fight dirty

For being trained assassins, ninjas follow a very serious set of rules. For example, a group of ninjas would never gang up on their victim but rather fight one at a time in order to maintain honor…and not get made fun of by other ninjas for being a wimp.

19. Ninjas take training seriously

When training, ninjas group off into different colors. A ninja has to stay with his color at all times otherwise they get kicked repeatedly as punishment. If you think that’s unnecessary, consider that they must always wear their tabi boots, even when they are sleeping.

18. Ninjas carry cooler weapons than the shuriken

Aside from the usual four-pointed stars and arrows dipped in poison, ninjas use some other pretty crazy stuff too. The ‘ashiko’ are spiked claws that can be worn on the feet and are used to climb faster and deliver deadly kicks while the ‘bo’ is a staff made from bamboo or hardwood which can be used to launch a poison-tipped dart or even a small knife.

17. Ninjas don’t make noise when they walk

Ninjas are like noise black holes. In fact, some say that the quieter your surroundings get the more ninjas are present.

16. Ninjas use poison…a lot

It shouldn’t be surprising considering their job description but ninjas are like the MacGyvers of poison. They could figure out a way to get something poisonous out of an apple peel if they had to. That may be a slight exaggeration but you get the point.

15. Ninjas wear black (usually)

Ok, so you knew that, but did you know that the uniform they wear is called ashinobi shozoko?

14. Ninjas make signs with their hands

They believed that making various signs with their hands allowed them to channel energy, kind of like gang signs -ninja style.

13. Ninjas use fake footprints

In order to avoid detection, ninjas would actually attach “ashiaro”, or fake footprints” to their boots that would make people think they were a small child or elderly person.

12. Ninjas invented their own flashlight

Well, it was really just a candle but they covered it up and cut a slit in one end of the covering in order to let out a beam of light that they could control. Apparently they were ahead of their time in illumination technology.

11. Ninjas always know where north is

We’ve been over this already, but it’s just that important. Theyalwaysknow where north is. They could find it blindfolded upside down on a spaceship spinning out of control.

10. Ninjas like to surf

Ok, not really, but they do have some pretty cool ways of getting across bodies of water using various inflatable raft and shoe type devices.

9. Ninjas use everything they have

Ifthey don’t have it, they improvise. In fact, almost everything they carry can either be used to survive something or to kill somebody-usually both.

8. Ninjas carry bombs

No, not like terrorists. Think Batman. They’re more like flash bangs that distract their enemies while the ninja disappears into thin air.

7. Ninjas are feared for their powers

It’s all smoke and mirrors, but if you have enough smoke you can make people believe anything, including the fact that you can disappear.

6. Sometimes girls are ninjas

Known as “kunoichi” these female ninjas were often employed for their murderous charm. They would get close with their enemies and then destroy them ninja style.

5. Ninjas had clan leaders

As you know, groups of ninjas were called clans. Each clan had a leader and that leader was often the source of numerous legends and statues. Lots and lots of statues.

4. Ninja school today

Apparently ninjas still exist and if you feel like the traditional college path isn’t for you, heck, ninja assassin could be a viable option.

3. Ninjas were called Shinobi

Although you may know them as ninjas, their unfortunate victims knew them as the shinobi (the original pronunciation). The word basically means “to steal away”.

2. Samurais vs Ninjas

Whileboth were warriors of feudal Japan, samurais were noblemen who followed the Bushido code of fighting while ninjas were recruited from the lower socio-economic class. They also differed in their loyalties as samurais typically served the emperor while ninjas could be hired by anyone who needed their services.

1. Ninjas loved cookies

No, they didn’t have a sweet tooth but they did eat a lot of calorie rich cookies known as katayaki while they were traveling through the woods or searching for their victims. It was something like modern day power bars.

Read more: http://list25.com/25-things-you-didnt-know-about-ninjas/

Game shows came of age toward the end of the Great Depression, and for good reason. People were so hard up for money that the lure of cash and prizes drew in audiences like nothing else. In some ways, the game show can be seen as the precursor to the reality show, taking ordinary folks and immersing them in a world of possibility. But like most forms of entertainment, game shows have their bizarre and sordid side.

10 The Intercept

car chase

Grand Theft Auto is one of the most popular video game franchises in the world, but one can immediately see serious logistical problems in adapting it to a game show setting. Leave it to the Russians to put this concept on wheels. The Intercept was a game show in which contestants were instructed to steal a car.

Once they were on the road, they had to evade the show’s police force for 35 minutes. If they could escape, they were given the car as a prize. Of course, winning was nearly impossible—the cars were outfitted with tracking devices, making staying ahead of the police a true miracle.

9 Man vs. Beast

boxing-kangaroo

In 2003, Fox aired Man vs. Beast, a show that consisted of people competing (and largely losing) against animals in different events, including an eating contest between former Nathan’s Hot Dog champion Takeru Kobayashi and a half-ton Kodiak bear. The most distasteful competition occurred between 44 dwarfs and an Asian elephant in an airplane-pulling race.

The only event clearly dominated by man was an obstacle course race between a US Navy SEAL and a chimpanzee. The SEAL, Scott Helvenston, wouldn’t have long to celebrate his victory though. The following year, he started as a contractor for the private security firm Blackwater and became the victim of one of the most savage acts of violence in the Iraq War. His team was ambushed by insurgents, torched, butchered, and dragged through the streets.

8 The Price Is Right

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Each episode of The Price Is Right concludes with two finalists guessing the price of a showcase, an assembly of big-ticket items like cars, furniture, and vacations. The contestant who guesses close enough to the actual price (without going over) wins.

For the most part, it’s an inexact science. But on September 22, 2008, contestant Terry Kneiss blew everyone away when he buzzed in with the exact amount of his showcase ($23,743), which consisted of a billiards table, a karaoke machine, and a 17-foot camper. Carey’s reaction was noticeably deadpan, as he feared yet another game show scandal might have been in the works.

However, Kneiss hadn’t cheated; a longtime viewer of the show, he merely noticed that many of the items were repeatedly featured. He memorized the prices of many items, and fortunately, those appeared in his showcase. And the $743? That was a fluke. Kneiss randomly used his PIN number.

7 Jeopardy!

pardy

Quiz show Jeopardy! is perhaps best known for the 2004 reign of Ken Jennings, a Mormon genius featured on 75 episodes of the show, until losing on the Final Jeopardy answer “Most of this firm’s 70,000 seasonal white-collar employees work only four months a year.” Jennings responded “What is Fed-Ex?” but the correct question was “What is H&R Block?”

In response to the kind of advertising that money couldn’t buy, H&R Block granted Jennings free tax preparations and financial advice for life. He would go on to appear in several more Jeopardy! tournaments, including one against IBM “artificial intelligence” supercomputer Watson (who beat him soundly).

However, winning Jeopardy! is only a matter of having the most money of three contestants. While Jennings often triumphed by tens of thousands of dollars, in 1993, Air Force lieutenant colonel Darryl Scott won a game with a score of $1. In case you’re wondering, the maximum amount one can win in a single game, provided you answer every question correctly, land on the Daily Double questions last in each round, and bet the maximum amount in Final Jeopardy is $566,400.

6 Wheel Of Fortune

wheel

Wheel of Fortune, which generally airs right before Jeopardy!, tends to aim at a less academic audience, with contestant auditions that rely less on intelligence than personality. Amiable host Pat Sajak runs the show while statuesque cougar (she’s 56!) Vanna White manipulates the electronic letter board.

Today, players can win hundreds of thousands of dollars, cars, and exotic vacations, but back in the 1980s, the show was “boring” according to Sajak. Instead of competing to win cash, players won symbolic funds which could be used to buy lame prizes like appliances. In 2012, Sajak admitted that the format took so long to film that he and Vanna used to sneak off for margarita-fueled dinners at a nearby restaurant. He claimed he and Vanna would have “two or three or six” margaritas before returning to the set, where they would “have trouble recognizing the alphabet”.

5 Family Feud

family fued

Family Feud premiered in 1976 and was hosted by Richard Dawson, a charming Englishman known for kissing the female contestants. Dawson was succeeded by Ray Combs, a somewhat-forgettable figure who hosted the show for six years. He was infamous for walking off the set after the final episode without even saying goodbye to anyone. In 1994, he was in a car accident that left him with permanent, painful spinal damage.

His career stalled, he suffered financial setbacks (including the foreclosure of his home), and he and his wife filed for divorce. Combs became psychotic, spending time in the hospital after a suicide attempt. Upon his release, he proceeded to destroy the inside of his home and smash his head into the walls. Police were summoned and took him to the Glendale Adventist Medical Center in Glendale, California to be evaluated. The next day, he hanged himself in the closet of his hospital room with his bedsheets. He was just 40 years old.

4 Press Your Luck

press

Press Your Luck was a mid-1980s game show that was part quiz show and part “dumb luck.” Contestants played against an illuminated game board that lit up prizes in different patterns, and they could stop it at any time to win the cash or prizes it landed on.

If they stopped the board on a “Whammy” (a caricature of a villain), they would lose everything. It all seemed entirely random until 1984—when unemployed ice cream truck driver Michael Larson appeared on the show and begun to run the board, playing 45 rounds in a row before striking out. His turn went on so long that it had to be incorporated into two episodes of the show.

Larson won an improbable fortune of $110,237. An investigation by CBS found that he had been using the stop-motion function on his VCR to painstakingly review episodes of the show. He realized that the random illumination of the game board actually worked in a predictable sequence. They determined this was not cheating and gave Michael Larson the prize money, but they made sure to reprogram the game board so that no one could duplicate the stunt.

3 Amaan Ramazan

ramazan

Amaan Ramazan is a Pakistani game show where guests are presented with prizes like laptops, smartphones, and land deeds for correctly answering questions about Islam.

Hosted by the lively Aamir Liaquat Hussain, one of the most famous television personalities in the country, the show has been criticized by opponents for doing wild stunts in the name of ratings. But during the 2013 holy month of Ramadan (which ran from July 9 to August 7), a time when shows in the Islamic world fight for ratings, Hussain unveiled his most audacious stunt yet: He gave away orphaned babies.

Although it appeared on the show that the babies were given away as prizes, the families were approved and fully vetted beforehand. Although this may seem like a controversial move, Amaan Ramazan may have actually saved these children’s lives. Babies are abandoned in Pakistan frequently, especially girls, who are seen by many as less desirable.

2 Cash Cab

cash cab

Cash Cab is a quiz show in which a cab driver lobs increasingly difficult trivia questions at taxi passengers while driving them to their destination. It has a three-strikes rule that dumps you on the sidewalk if you rack up three wrong answers during your ride.

The Canadian version of the show endured an ugly scandal in 2011, when the Cash Cab struck and killed a 61-year-old pedestrian in Vancouver, British Columbia. Fortunately for the fate of the show, the accident did not occur during filming, but later in the day when one of the show’s producers was bringing the cab back to a garage for the night.

There have been more than two dozen international versions of the program throughout the world. The American version went off the air in 2012.

1 Who Wants To Be A Millionaire?

millionaire

Who Wants To Be a Millionaire is notable for its “lifelines,” which contestants can use to seek help with a particularly tricky question. Although the lifelines have evolved somewhat throughout the run of the series, two of the common choices were “phone-a-friend” and “ask the audience.” Objectively, the best “phone-a-friend” moment occurred on November 19, 1999, when John Carpenter called his father while answering the million-dollar question. Carpenter didn’t need help—he just wanted to tell his dad he was going to win. And he did, becoming the first million-dollar winner in the US version of the show.

In “ask the audience,” the audience is prompted to provide their answer to the question, usually leaving the contestant with a clear majority choice. In the American version of the show, this is typically the correct answer. However, audiences in international renditions of the show can be quite fickle, instead choosing to troll the contestant and provide the wrong answer intentionally. This has been observed in the French version, and especially in the Russian version.

Read more: http://listverse.com/2013/09/11/10-weird-facts-about-game-shows/

Absentmindedly (sorry, obsessively) checking my Klout score this morning, I stumbled upon a perk — a shiny ad for some kind of new Starbucks drink offered to the uber-influencers of the influence-counting service. A perk! I love perks.

Klout perks have been around for a couple years, and they’re no joke, even if you think the service is: upgrades to a first class lounge at SFO, VIP access at a Hollywood nightclub, deeper discounts on Gilt and more. One guy, as of May, had collected 63 perks, including a phone and an invitation to a VH1 awards show. In June, Klout bragged it has delivered 700,000 perks across 350 campaigns.

Unfortunately, as soon as I clicked on the Starbucks perk for my free drink, my heart sank.

It seems that my Klout score of 59 was just not high enough to meet their bar of influence, a Klout score of 60. I am not influential enough to be worthy of a Starbucks Refresher. Surely, there were things I could qualify for, though? I mean, I’m not INVISIBLE. I have INFLUENCE. I’m not the most powerful person in the Kloutworld (scores go up to 100) but I’m certainly average or better. Can’t I at least pick up a pass to a Bud Lime party?

NOPE. To be fair, it seems that the party already happened, and it happened in Chicago and Washington, DC. I am in San Francisco.

Increasingly desperate to prove my Klout self-worth and validate my Kloutsistence with perks, though, I kept clicking around various categories — “Experiences,” “Retail,” “Sports” — hunting for a perk I could claim. Of the ten current perks, I am only eligible for three. The shame!

And even when I tried to claim my measly three perks, there were problems. After unsuccessfully attempting to get new business cards and a photo album, I clicked on the Red Bull magazine, supposedly open to anyone with a Klout score over 1. Still, no dice.

No Band-Aids for me, either.

Also, the bulk of the perks were all used up.

So what am I missing? Many of the comments were positive, even for the most mundane things, like the Red Bull magazine.“This is the perfect type of digital magazine! Just an awesome design,” said one recipient. So, a lot, maybe.

But not everything was as promised. An eSalon hair coloring perk got particularly bad reviews —“Well, this isn’t a perk because you can get your first color at eSalon FREE and just pay the $5 shipping…it’s actually more. It’s one thing for a Perk to be a discount, but for it to be MORE expensive, I’m actually offended,” groused one commenter.

On the higher end, there were more troubling issues. The priciest perk that I saw were tickets valued at around $2,500 to some kind of London event — you needed to have a God-like Klout score of 70 to qualify for them. (Does God even have a Klout score that high?) At least one man who qualified claims he didn’t receive his perk at all.

Overall, my personal Klout envy aside, the perk program seems pretty disappointing. Most of the prizes were beyond boring (Band-Aids for Canadians?) and unevenly doled out. If you had actual clout — i.e., you command real attention and influence — you probably wouldn’t need Klout to tell you about a Bud Lime summer party. You’d be the person throwing it.

Read more: http://buzzfeed.com/reyhan/how-internet-famous-do-you-have-to-be-to-get-free

1. Legend has it a 9th-century Ethiopian goat herder discovered coffee by accident when he noticed how crazy the beans were making his goats.

2. New Yorkers drink almost 7 times more coffee than other cities in the US.

3. Coffee is a psychoactive. And at high doses it can make you see things… It can also kill you…

4. The lethal dose of caffeine is roughly 100 cups of coffee.

5. A French doctor in the 1600s suggested Cafe Au Laits for patients, inspiring people to begin adding milk to coffee.

6. The French philosopher Voltaire is said to have drank 50 cups of coffee a day. Because he ruled.

7. Espresso is regulated by the Italian government because it is considered an essential part of their daily life

8. Hawaii is the only state that commercially grows coffee. And this is what it looks like:

9. In the ancient Arab culture there was only one way a woman could legally divorce: If her husband didn’t provide enough coffee.

10. Coffee beans are actually the pit of a berry, which makes them a fruit. The best fruit.

11. IMPORTANT TO KNOW: Brewed espresso has 2.5% fat, while filtered coffee contains 0.6% fat.

12. Johan Sebastian Bach wrote an opera about a woman who was addicted to coffee.

13. We’re not going to tell you how, but there is a way to brew coffee with marijuana in it and it is described as producing a “dreamy” kind of coffee buzz.

14. Unlike the hip 20-something Baristas in the US, in Italy the average Barista age is 48, and it is a very respected profession.

15. Want to know the history of the word “coffee”? Well here it is:

16. In the 1600s there was a controversy over whether or not Catholics could drink coffee, luckily Pope Clement VIII said it was okay.

17. No matter what people tell you, caffeine cannot help you sober up.

18. The first webcam was invented at The University of Cambridge to let people know if the coffee pot was full or not.

19. There is a spa in Japan that lets you bathe in coffee, tea, or wine. I wouldn’t drink it though…

20. This is the most expensive drink at Starbucks: $23.50, with 16 shots of espresso or 1400mg of caffeine.

21. Before coffee caught on in the US in the 1700s, beer was breakfast drink of choice. Which is only slightly less awesome.

22. Irish coffee was actually invented to warm up cold American plane passengers leaving from Ireland.

23. And lastly, Teddy Roosevelt is and was the greatest American coffee drinker, consuming a gallon a day. But you probably shouldn’t attempt to do that.

Read more: http://buzzfeed.com/ryanhatesthis/23-facts-about-coffee-the-worlds-most-important

Your next car is going to be something incredible.

1. Built-in 4G LTE Wi-Fi hotspots for always staying connected on the road.

Buick

Why It’s Cool: A growing number of manufacturers like Buick, GMC, and Chevrolet are including built-in 4G LTE hotspots in their cars, allowing drivers to use their phones, tablets, and laptops without having to use their expensive data or pull over to the nearest Starbucks. Just don’t try to use your tech while driving, please.

2. Cameras that see everything around your car, not just behind it.

Infiniti

Why It’s Cool: While more cars nowadays are coming with rear-view cameras, companies like Ford and Infiniti are including cameras that allow drivers to see everything else around their car when driving. In fact, these futuristic cameras also come with sensors to actually inform you when you’re about to hit something, saving you the confrontation and guilt.

3. Trunks that automatically open even if your hands are full.

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Why It’s Cool: It’s always a nightmare trying to open your trunk when your hands are full with groceries or beach stuff; you usually end up trying to kick your trunk open or do some awkward hand dance move to make it work. The 2015 Kia Sedona helps you out by automatically opening your trunk when it detects your smart key in your pocket, and is even programmable for safety and easy access.

Kia

4. Windows that clean themselves and deflect liquid automatically.

Kia

Why It’s Cool: Kia and other car makers are actively featuring “hydrophobic” windows for its 2015 and 2016 car models, which is coated glass that stops stuff like rain, dirt, and other debris from even touching your precious windows. It’s like built-in Rain-X for your ride, without the need to apply it yourself.

5. A built-in vacuum for spontaneous spills and cleaning spells.

Honda

Why It’s Cool: Car lovers are definitely familiar with Shop-Vac, which makes efficient vacuums for any vehicle out there. The 2014 and 2015 Honda Odyssey capitalizes on that love and actually includes a built-in vacuum with a long range hose for people who are interested in keeping everything clean all the time.

6. NASA-approved car seats that prevent fatigue on long drives.

Nissan

Why It’s Cool: Road trip-inflicted sore butts can make the best of us cranky. To counter this tragedy, the surprising duo of Nissan and NASA teamed up to develop “zero gravity” seats that keep you in a natural posture, while comforting your muscles and spines with cushioning. That’s true space-age technology.

7. Car seats that can actually give you a massage while being heated or cooled.

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Why It’s Cool: Being able to warm or cool car seats in cars like the 2015 Kia Sedona and 2015 Ford Edge is awesome. Mercedes-Benz’s line of S-Class cars takes it to the next level and has six massage modes built into the car seat, including “hot stone” and “workout” massage modes for feeling relaxed and invigorated after those long days.

Mercedes-Benz USA

8. Lighter cars, thanks to the use of military-grade aluminum.

Wikimedia Commons

Why It’s Cool: These days, the concept of a “light car” doesn’t just apply to those cute little smart vehicles you see roaming around the mall. Take a truck like the 2015 Ford F-150, which is 700 pounds lighter, or even Honda’s already light Fit hatchback which is 57 pounds lighter. This is thanks to the use of next-generation aluminum, which make cars more durable, more gas efficient, and easier to control.

9. Brakes and cameras that automatically keep you in the center of the lane.

Honda

Why It’s Cool: Everyone sometimes finds themself getting a bit too close to that yellow line. Thankfully, new versions of the Ford Fusion, Toyota Prius, and Lincoln MKZ have a feature called “lane centering,” which uses onboard cameras and the brakes to gently nudge your car into the center of a lane.

10. Cars that recognize traffic light changes and count down until the next green light.

Audi / Via Autoblog.com

Why It’s Cool: We spend at least 38 hours a year stuck in traffic, and that usually involves a lot of time looking at stoplights. Throughout the next few years, Audi is going to roll out a traffic light information system which will tell drivers how long until the next green light and also tell you fast or slow they should go to get to the next green light, all in one system.

11. Heated wiper blades that melt ice and snow to keep everything clear.

Thermalblade

Why It’s Cool: Winter drivers know the pain and agony of having to deal with the snow messing their vision up. It’s not a fun thing, but companies like Everblade and Thermalblade make affordable wiper blades that make quick work of ice and snow to make sure you never have to break out the squeegee yourself.

12. Way more gas-efficient engines and motors.

Patrick Emerson (Flickr, Creative Commons)

Why It’s Cool: While the price of gas might be going down recently, most of us agree that the less we have to fill up, the better life is. Cars like the 2015 Chrysler 200 sedan and the 2015 Honda Fit are starting to go beyond 30 miles per gallon, while even more beast-y vehicles like the 2015 Ford F-150 have more efficient cylinders to save drivers from heading to the pump too often.

13. Push button shifting for easy adjustments while on the road.

Honda / Via Carmatcher.com

Why It’s Cool: We’ve all been wowed by the push button ignition that has made its way to a number of cars in the past few years, but the 2015 Acura TLX and 2016 Honda Pilot add to the automatic ingenuity by having different buttons for different gears. This frees up more space in the center console, and even allows for different shifting modes for more efficient driving.

14. GPS that automatically analyzes traffic and finds the best way around it.

Pohanka Accura

Why It’s Cool: We can all agree that traffic sucks. Acura’s futuristic Real-Time Traffic feature on the 2016 MDX works with the built-in GPS system to find the best way to get around traffic, while spotting accidents, weather events, and construction on the road. It’s a lot less of a hassle (and safer) than pulling out your phone.

15. A sunfroof that automatically blocks light and lets you see what you want to.

Mercedes-Benz USA

Why It’s Cool: We’ve evolved past the point where sunroofs are only for looking cool and sticking your head out. Mercedes-Benz’s newer SLK models include a new “Magic Sky” sunroof that can be darkened to block out sunroof and UV rays, or lightened to see more of that big, beautiful clear sky.

16. Sensors that learn your driving style and can detect when you’re too tired to drive.

Mercedes-Benz USA

Why It’s Cool: After a long, tiring night, one of the worst decisions you can make is to drive and risk getting into a serious accident. To solve this, car companies like BMW and Mercedes-Benz have developed sensors and systems that learn how you drive and alert you to pull over and take a rest when you start swaying or being reckless.

17. An alternator that recycles energy for your car and saves gas.

Mazda

Why It’s Cool: Renewable energy is awesome, especially when it comes to cars. The 2014 Mazada6 has a technology called i-ELOOP, which stores kinetic energy every time it breaks, converts that energy to electricity, and uses that energy to power headlights, AC systems, and even car audio. That’s less fuel used for a happier you.

18. Access to your Android or iPhone without having to grab them while driving.

Apple

Why It’s Cool: Everyone (your dad, your local police officer, Demi Lovato) has told you to never, ever use your phone while driving. However, Google and Apple have recognized that people need to see information on their phones while driving, and created Android Auto and CarPlay for easy, safe access. Both are being built-in by a ton of car makers into a number of dashboards, but you can also buy a hybrid navigation system with both if you so desire.

19. Built-in night vision and radar detection for avoiding objects and wilderness.

BMW

Why It’s Cool: We’ve all experienced night drives when even your high beams aren’t enough to make you feel secure. But since we live in the future, car manufacturers like BMW and Audi have taken it upon themselves to develop actual night vision dashboard systems that work with sensors and allow you to see wildlife like deer or objects like trash cans in the complete dark.

20. Interfaces that recognize and automatically respond to your voice.

Fiat

Why It’s Cool: While we’re not quite there in terms of a fully talkative car like KITT from Knight Rider, the likes of Chrysler, Dodge, Fiat, Jeep, and more have implemented UConnect voice recognition systems in their 2015 models that respond to your voice for a number of tasks. Asking your car things like “Where is the nearest gas station?” or “How do I get home?” are finally possible and very convenient.

21. Car systems that alert you and automatically brake before a potential accident.

Wikimedia Commons

Why It’s Cool: Safety has always been the main focus for all car makers with each new technology that comes out. In the present day, some cars like the 2015 Honda Accord automatically vibrate your seat or steering wheel when you’re about to hit something from the front, while others like the 2015 Subaru Outback even take it further and automatically brake to stop a collision.

22. Speakers that provide actual surround sound.

Meridian Audio

Why It’s Cool: The one thing that drivers can always count on to keep them sane is their music and speakers, but it seems that there’s a never ending chase to have the best sounds and the deepest bass for the sickest drops. More cars are coming with standard speakers that bring the concert to your ride, with an example being the Land Rover’s Meridian sound system with a whopping 13 speakers, 12 channels, and multiple modes to get all your tunes right.

23. Automatic stop and start engines to save gas during those traffic jams.

Chevrolet

Why It’s Cool: Your car goes through a lot of fuel when it’s not moving in traffic, and some people even go through the measure of stopping their car when things come to a halt. The 2015 Chevy Malibu gets rid of all the guesswork and automatically stops a car if your foot is on the brake pedal during a jam, and restarts the car when your foot is off, saving your gas and saving the environment.

24. High beams that automatically adjust to not blind everyone else on the road.

BMW

Why It’s Cool: Your high beams are necessary when driving in the dark, but you’ve probably made a few people angry by having them on while they drive by in the other lane. BMW and Audi’s laser-powered high beam systems crank the brightness up high when there’s no one in front of you and dim themselves when there’s cars. Now there’s no possible way you can piss someone off with your headlights.

25. Automatic parallel and perpendicular parking systems.

Toyota

Why It’s Cool: If you live in a big city or an urban area in general, finding parking can get tough and usually leads you to the hassle of having to parallel park. Now, however, every company from Toyota to Lexus and Ford to Volvo includes parking assists which find a space and perform a near perfect parallel park maneuver without screwing up anyone’s bumper. This year, car maker Bosch is even gearing up to allow drivers to get out of a car and have vehicles park themselves with the help of an app.

26. Crash detection sensors that get you the help you need, fast.

Ford

Why It’s Cool: A car crash is among the scariest things anyone will go through, and if you’ve ever been in one, trying to signal for help becomes one of the hardest things to do. In the modern age, companies like Ford and GM use cellular connectivity and sensors to dial 911 and send help to where you are. Every second counts.

27. Cars that drive themselves.

Tesla

Why It’s Cool: The holy grail of futuristic car technology is having cars that drive themselves, and the newest version of Tesla’s Model S is right about there with its Autopilot feature. The system uses a camera, radar, and 360 degree sonar sensors to control speed, change lanes, turns, and park automatically. Self-driving cars are going to be among the hottest things in the automotive industry over the next few years, with GM and even Apple rumored to get in on the action.

Read more: http://www.buzzfeed.com/betonnorthshore/futuristic-car-features

Barley, hops, yeast, water, and a whole lot of aggravation.

1. “Is it ready yet?”

"Is it ready yet?"

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Via hedge-walker.tumblr.com

Making a homebrew takes time — usually about a month before it’s ready to drink. So no, the batch that I finished making 2 hours ago isn’t ready.

2. “You know Anheuser-Busch has already perfected this right?”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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Via monininteressantevie.tumblr.com

If you think that Anheuser-Busch is the pinnacle of beer making, then we probably weren’t going to be friends anyway.

3. “Oh, I love craft beer! Have you ever tried Blue Moon?”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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Lucasfilm / Via giphy.com

Oh man! You drink wheat beer?! How hipster! Do you know who brews Blue Moon? Take a guess.

4. “Have you ever made a PBR clone?”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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Via tumblr.com

The ingredients alone are more expensive than buying a case of the stuff. Plus, you want to wait a month to drink a PBR you made? Get out of my house.

5. “Is it ready yet?”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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Via tumblr.com

People are really impatient.

6. “Wouldn’t it just be easier to buy beer?”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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Fox / Via giphy.com

Yes, it is! However, homebrewers like to try something different. We’re usually the guys drinking smoked beer, or beer brewed with coffee or brains. We like pushing the envelope. We’re like the Steve Jobs of beer.

7. “Can you make me a watermelon/blueberry/honeysuckle beer?”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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Via tumblr.com

Look, we love weird requests. And they sometimes work (put peanut butter in it!). But as much as we love trying ingredients we’ve never tried before, some shit just doesn’t work. If you want to see how the flavor profile of a pale ale changes with honeysuckle, maybe you should try brewing it yourself?

8. “Its ok, I’ll just drink it straight from the bottle.”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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Oh, that’s fine. Let me know the next time you make a pie. I’ll just cram my face right into the pan, no worries. WOULDN’T WANT TO DIRTY A PLATE!

9. “Have you ever tried a beer with [insert completely random, terrible ingredient idea here]?”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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Walt Disney Pictures / Via giphy.com

Chances are, if you wouldn’t try cooking with it, I won’t try brewing with it.

10. “Is it ready yet?”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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AMC / Via tumblr.com

Really … don’t you have anything better to do?

11. “Hey Walter White? You cooking the blue stuff?”

"Hey Walter White? You cooking the blue stuff?"

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Via craftbeerlibrary.net

Yes, sometimes a serious brew rig looks like it might be able to produce enough blue stuff to keep Arizona tweaking for a decade. But you know how you can tell the difference? Meth doesn’t smell this good.

12. “Can I come over for your next brew day?”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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Via tumblr.com

Of course you can. Just be ready to stand around and watch me wash/sanitize for hours. Yeah, there’s a lot of standing around.

13. “What do you like better: Coors, Miller, or Bud?”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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Film4 / Via giphy.com

If you think we’re drinking a Coors while we’re watching a Belgian Tripel mash out, you’re wrong.

14. “What brewery do you work for?”

"What brewery do you work for?"

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Via marriedtothesea.com

You haven’t heard of it, but you will!

*MANIACAL LAUGHTER*

15. “Is it ready yet?”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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Columbia Pictures / Via exquisitegifs.tumblr.com

You really want to get punched in the face today, don’t you?

16. “Have you ever tried [insert nationally known brewery]?”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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Via giphy.com

Why no, I’ve never heard of a Samuel Adams Brewery! What do they make? Vice Presidential beer?

17. “Can you make a Bud Light Lime clone?”

"Can you make a Bud Light Lime clone?"

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You really don’t get this whole homebrew thing do you?

18. “Oh yeah, I bought one of those kits online too.”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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Do you even know what a hot break is?

19. “Why don’t you make it like 20% ABV!!?”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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NBC / Via imperialbedrooms.tumblr.com

At that point, wouldn’t you just want a nice glass of scotch?

20. “I like Miller Lite the best because it’s ‘triple hops brewed.’”

"I like Miller Lite the best because it’s 'triple hops brewed.'"

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Photo Credit: Daniel Piraino via Compfight cc

You obviously have no idea what you’re talking about.

21. “I love that signature beachwood aging flavor you get in Budweiser.”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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… I got nothing.

22. “I love Coors because it’s brewed cold and I know so because the mountains are blue!”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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Touchstone Pictures / Via tumblr.com

Uh … hey man, is your ear bleeding?

23. “Is it ready yet?”

23 Things Homebrewers Are Tired Of Hearing

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Read more: http://buzzfeed.com/justinlehmann/23-things-homebrewers-are-tired-of-hearing-ghjm

Writer and “perfumaniac” Barbara Herman’s Scent and Subversion: Decoding a Century of Provocative Perfume (Lyons Press, 2013) digs into the sexualized and gendered history behind perfume.

 

Herman shared some interesting insights with BuzzFeed about the inspirations and creation of classic fragrances.

1. The Dana company wanted its Tabu perfume to smell like prostitutes.

 

“Tabu’s (1932) perfumer Jean Carles was told by the Dana perfume company to ‘make a perfume a prostitute would wear.’” You can buy Dana’s classics here.

2. Jacques Guerlain, a classic perfumer, had a similar vision in having his scent smell like a mistress.

 

“Jacques Guerlain, maker of such classics as Shalimar (1925) said ‘Perfume should smell like the underside of my mistress.’”

3. Scents often used substances from animal anuses.

“One way perfumes like Shalimar were able to smell like sexual bodies was the inclusion of ‘overdoses’ of perfume ingredients like civet — sourced from the anal gland of the mongoose-like Civet animal. Which means your grandmother was slathering herself with anal cream.”

OH EW.

4. Bandit de Robert Piguet perfume was inspired by womens’ panties.

Robert Piguet / hprints.com

autena / etsy.com

 

“Bandit (1947) was created by lesbian perfumer and former model Germaine Cellier and it’s said that the scent was inspired by the smell of models changing their panties at a Robert Piguet fashion show. It’s a mossy leather scent that now would be made for men.”

5. Instead of smoking cigarettes in the 1920s, women could just spray cigarette smell on themselves.

Molinard / delcampe.net

Molinard / fragrantica.com

 

“Habanita (1925) perfume by Molinard once actually perfumed cigarettes. It was considered declassé and a little slutty for women to smoke, and Molinard just made it more decadent by creating a perfume to add to the cigs! It soon became a perfume that smelled like cigarettes, with tobacco notes.”

6. Sometimes perfumes aren’t explicitly made for human flesh.

“Zibeline perfume by Weil was made exclusively to scent furs.”

7. The contents of a whale’s stomach could be the key to a really great scent.

“Ambergris, a perfume ingredient more expensive than gold, is the product of a whale’s irritated stomach. It floats around and gets oxidized by the sun, and the longer it does this, and ages like a fine wine, the better it ends up smelling. The washed up remnants are what end up getting sold.”

8. Beavers produce a fruity-smelling chemical called castoreum.

Chanel / chanel.com

“Castoreum, an ingredient from a beaver’s abdominal gland that is used in leather-scented perfumes, may be part of the “natural flavoring” you find in raspberry and strawberry flavored sweets, including ice cream. It has a fruitiness to its animal hide smell.”

Chanel’s Cuir de Russie is down with the castoreum.

9. The Rolling Stones member Keith Richards might use woman’s perfume as deodorant.

 

“It’s rumored that Keith Richards wears Joy by Patou (1931), which marketed itself as ‘The most expensive perfume ever made,’ under his armpits.”

10. Animals enhance the human body’s natural and erotic smells.

“Animal ingredients in perfumes of the past were used to highlight the body’s natural odors, which were considered erotic and sexually alluring. This flies in the face of the theory that perfume was invented to hide the smells of people who didn’t bathe.”

Learn more about fragrance history on Herman’s wesbite, YesterdaysPerfume.com and follow her on Twitter @Parfumaniac!

Correction: The perfume Joy by Patou (1931) was marketed as “The most expensive perfume ever made.” An earlier version of this post stated that Joy by Patou (1931) was considered “The most expensive perfume ever made.”

Read more: http://buzzfeed.com/chanelparks/weird-things-you-didnt-know-about-perfume

Rescuers-throw-bouncing-camera-into-dangerous-places-aa7f6597e4

If Francisco Aguilar and Dave Young get their way, police officers and firefighters will someday carry baseball-shaped, throwable cameras along with the rest of their equipment.

As the founders of Bounce Imaging, Aguilar and Young are developing spherical, camera-laden gadgets that can be tossed into dangerous places—such as the rubble of a building leveled by an earthquake—and then wirelessly relay 360-degree panoramic images of the scene back to a tablet or smartphone.

First responders and military personnel increasingly use technology to scout out places of interest without putting themselves in harm’s way. Often this means using robots capable of crawling into a building or toward a suspect vehicle. iRobot has even developed a compact, throwable reconnaissance robot called FirstLook.

Aguilar and Young, who met as graduate students at MIT’s Sloan School of Management, believe that their device will be easier to operate and cheaper than existing devices. They hope to sell the device for less than $500 initially.

“The idea behind this is, we get it to a point where if you toss it into a room and it’s dangerous to go get it, the unit is essentially disposable,” Aguilar says.

Aguilar came up with the idea for Bounce Imaging’s ball-shaped device while working as a volunteer in Haiti after the country’s devastating earthquake in 2010. While there were some fiber-optic cameras that could be used to search through rubble for survivors, the equipment was expensive and required a skilled operator, he says.

Earlier this year, he started working on Bounce Imaging with Young. They’ve since won $60,000 in funding—$50,000 in prize money from a contest organized by startup accelerator MassChallenge and $10,000 in another contest, the VenCorps NYC Impact Challenge—and are working on a prototype of their first product, which they hope to start testing in January. Several police departments and SWAT units are interested in trying it out, Aguilar says, including MIT’s own police department.

Young, who previously served in the Army in Iraq and Afghanistan, thinks Bounce Imaging’s ball-sized device could be particularly useful for the military. It would be easier to lug around than some of the unwieldy equipment he had to carry while on duty, he says. And, since it’s much cheaper than other imaging tools, it could be abandoned, if necessary.

Others have demonstrated spherical camera systems. For example, researchers at the Technische Universität Berlin built a foam-covered ball with 36 cameras inside that is capable of taking complete panoramas when thrown into the air (see “Eye Ball“).

Bounce Imaging’s device is expected to a weigh half a pound to a pound with a battery inside. It includes six wide-angle cameras that are each surrounded by an infrared LED flash. An external casing protects the components from being crushed on impact and allows the device to bounce.

The cameras can snap pictures every second or half-second, depending on the device’s settings; six pictures will give a full 360-degree view of the scene. An accelerometer and gyroscope help orient images, which are sent wirelessly to an Android-running smartphone or tablet where software stitches the images together.

Young and Aguilar hope to incorporate different sensors into the device for different applications. A firefighter might use one that includes smoke, temperature, and oxygen sensors, for example.

One obvious problem that Bounce Imaging faces is retrieval of its balls—the gadget doesn’t currently include a mechanism to bounce or roll itself back to whomever threw it, so you’d either need to go in and get it or leave it behind. The company may add a tether to allow the user to pull it back, or a beacon that allows the device to be found later on. Aguilar suggests that at some point, the company could even add motion capabilities, like that offered by robotic ball maker Sphero.

This article originally published at MIT Technology Review
here

Read more: http://mashable.com/2012/11/08/bounce-imaging/

The world is full of unexplained events and discoveries. People are, naturally, intrigued by unknown occurrences and controversial subjects. The current rise in technological advancement and DNA testing has raised questions in the field of archeology and world history. In many cases, these discoveries have been documented, but information surrounding the artifacts or historical event is hidden behind a wall of mystery. This article will be examining ten historical, theoretical and scientific questions that will make you think. The answers to most of these questions are supported by some scientific research, theory and historical documentation, while others are largely rhetorical. This list is longer than the usual but, as you will see, it really benefits from the extra information.

Nugget  154 A Keseberg Donner Party Cannibal-1

The question: What did Louis Keseberg do?

On April 14, 1846, a group of pioneers known as the Donner Party began their voyage to relocate from the U.S. state of Illinois to California. The trip covered 2,500 miles (4,023 kilometers) over the Great Plains, two mountain ranges and the deserts of the Great Basin. The voyage took between four and six months, but the Donner Party was slowed because they decided to follow a new route called Hastings Cutoff. The group was told that Hastings Cutoff was a shortcut, but, in fact, it was a longer and more treacherous path. Ultimately, 87 people made the journey through the cutoff, which crossed Utah’s Wasatch Mountains and the Great Salt Lake Desert. In all, 37 of the pioneers were members of the Reed and Donner families, while German emigrants Louis and Philippine Keseberg were also traveling with the group.

During the voyage, many of the pioneers documented their daily activities. Louis Keseberg was frequently mentioned in these journals. The connotation surrounding his activates was almost always negative. Louis Keseberg was routinely confronted for abusing his wife and children. Keseberg’s behavior was suspicious to the other travelers and he was regularly accused of theft, malingering and murder. In fact, the Donner Party journals are full of animosity, violent events and war.

After intense snow storms struck the Donner Party, it soon became evident that the group was not going to make it over the mountains before winter. To fend off the cold, all of the families built shelters in the area surrounding Truckee Lake and Alder Creek. By December 13, there was 8 feet (2.4 m) of snow. By the middle of January, most of the group’s food was gone and all that remained was dead human bodies. To stay alive, certain members of the Donner Party began to eat each other. Human bodies were labeled with the names of the deceased and the area became a “Cannibal Camp.”

On February 18, a seven-man rescue party scaled Frémont Pass and reached the Donner camps, which by this time were completely buried in snow. “The first two members of the relief party to enter the camp saw Trudeau carrying a human leg. When they made their presence known, he threw it into a hole with other dismembered bodies.” Twenty-three people were chosen and taken by the rescuers, but the pioneers were weak and some died on the long voyage to California. Dozens of people remained at the Truckee Lake and Alder Creek camp sites. One of these individuals was Louis Keseberg. Little is known about what Keseberg did during this time, but claims have been made that he became a predator.

The final rescue party didn’t reach the camp until April 21, 1847. When they arrived, Louis Keseberg was the only survivor. He was surrounded by dismembered bodies, gallons of blood, and had a fresh pot of human flesh over the fire. The men also found George Donner’s pistols, jewelry and $250 in gold in Keseberg’s cabin. The rescue group threatened to lynch Louis Keseberg, but he was ultimately taken to California. Upon return, Keseberg sued Ned Coffeemeyer for slander and for allegedly spreading stories about his deeds at the Donner camps. Keseberg won his case, but was awarded only $1 in damages. This was evidently all the judicial system felt his reputation was worth. During his lifetime, Louis Keseberg saw over ten of his children die in a number of different ways.

Grapefruit-Juice-Diet

The question: Why Should You Avoid Grapefruit Juice When Taking Certain Drugs?

Many people don’t realize that grapefruit and grapefruit juice has the potential to negatively interact with many drugs and prescribed medications. This happens because the organic compounds in the grapefruit interfere with the intestinal enzyme cytochrome P450 isoform CYP3A4. This causes either an increasing or decreasing bioavailability. The interaction can be witnessed in a number of therapeutic, medical and recreational drugs. Grapefruit juice does not influence injected drugs, only oral substances that undergo first-pass metabolism by the enzyme.

Some of the most common examples of these drugs are a number of sedatives, slow release drugs, ingested marijuana, Codeine, Valium, Norvasc, Pravachol, Cordarone, Viagra, Zoloft, Allegra, and Lipitor. People should not take large amounts of grapefruit while ingesting these medications. When a physician prescribes a specific dose of a drug to a patient, they are working under the assumption that the person will absorb the drug at a specific rate. This calculation is based on the individual’s body type and weight. This information will inform the physician on how much medication to prescribe.

Grapefruit juice has an influence on the enzymes in your gastrointestinal tract that bring food and oral medications into your body. For this reason, grapefruit juice seems to affect both the rate of the drug coming into your body and how quickly it is removed. The end result can be an overdose or an uneven dosage for your size. Grapefruit extends the half life of some drugs, interfering with the body’s ability to break down the substance. The interaction caused by grapefruit compounds lasts for up to 24 hours and the reaction is greatest when the juice is ingested with the drug.

Kokoro-Actroid-1

The question: When will Humans Be Pushed into the Uncanny Valley?

The uncanny valley is a hypothesis regarding the field of robotics and artificial intelligence. The theory holds that when robots, human clones, or computers have characteristics that are similar in appearance to that of humans, it causes a feeling of revulsion and anger. The feeling can be so overwhelming that the person has a need to assault and damage the artificial intelligence. The term has been traced to Ernst Jentsch’s concept of the uncanny, which is a psychological instance where something can be familiar, yet foreign at the same time, resulting in a feeling of it being uncomfortably strange.

For example, if you owned a robot that was human like in appearance and intelligence, the simple fact that it was in your house, staring at you, would make you feel uneasy. Because the uncanny is familiar, yet strange, it often creates cognitive dissonance within the person due to the paradoxical nature of being attracted to, yet repulsed by an object at the same time.

This often leads to an outright rejection of the object. The uncanny valley theory states that as a robot is made more humanlike in its appearance and motion, the emotional response from a human to the robot will become increasingly positive and empathic, until a point is reached and we enter the uncanny valley, beyond which the response quickly becomes that of a strong revulsion. Take a look at the picture of this realistic looking robot and tell me what emotional response you feel.

In many people, it will elicit a strange feeling and reaction. It has been hypothesized that these feelings are due to a biological response that is innate to all humans. As we enter the age of 3D advancement, design studios routinely consider the idea of the uncanny valley. Animation companies follow a set of rules when developing characters, making sure that they do not make them to realistic.

100 Dollar Bill

The question: Who is Behind the Superdollar?

The superdollar, or superbill, refers to a very high quality counterfeit United States $100 bill that has been circulating around the world. After investigations by the United States, Great Britain, China and other world powers, certain crime syndicates and federal governments have been suspected and implemented in creating the notes. The U.S. Government believes that the counterfeit one hundred-dollar bills are most likely being produced in North Korea. However, other possible sources include Iran or criminal gangs operating out of China. Some have even suggested the possibility of an American CIA involvement.

It has been determined that high ranking government officials or organized crime organizations are responsible for the notes because they are extremely high quality and practically intractable. In fact, they are called superdollars because the technology used to create the counterfeit bills is more advanced and superior to the original. The notes are said to be made with the highest quality ink and paper. They are designed to recreate the various security features of United States currency, such as the red and blue security fibers, the security thread, and the watermark. The notes are printed using the intaglio and typographic printing processes.

The United States has based its accusations against North Korea on the accounts of North Korean defectors, who allegedly described the operation, and on South Korean intelligence sources. Certain witnesses have claimed that the factory where the notes are printed is located in the city of Pyongsong, North Korea, and is part of Division 39. The United States government has suggested that the superbills are being distributed by North Korean diplomats and international crime syndicates. In 2004, The U.S. prohibited Americans from banking with Banco Delta Asia. Since that time, the United States has regularly threatened North Korea with sanctions over its alleged involvement with the counterfeit operation.

On February 2, 2006, banks in Japan voluntarily enforced sanctions on Banco Delta Asia identical to those imposed by the U.S. Some have estimated that 1 in 10,000 US$100 bills are counterfeit. The American $100 bill is the most counterfeited currency in the world. To fight the abuse, the U.S. government has developed a new $100 bill that is more secure. The new design has a complex printing process and holds a new 3D blue security stripe. The bills were initially set to be released in early 2011, but the U.S. Treasury and Federal Reserve suffered a major setback when 1.1 billion new one hundred-dollar bills were printed with a flaw. The release of the new $100 bill has been pushed back until the printing problem can be fixed.

Homo Floresiensis-Wikimedia-Ryan-Somma

The question: Did Miniature Humans Populate Earth 12,000 Years Ago?

In 2003, a team of Australian-Indonesian archaeologists made a remarkable discovery in Liang Bua Cave, which is located on the Island of Flores, in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The group was searching for evidence of the original human migration when they discovered a collection of unusual hominoid bones and artifacts. Partial skeletons of nine individuals were unearthed, including one complete cranium. These remains have been the subject of intense research and debate as they appear to have human features, but are miniature in size.

This has caused some scientists to claim that the bones represent a species distinct from modern humans. The new species has been labeled Homo floresiensis (nicknamed Hobbit). The hominoid is noted for its small body and brain size and for its relatively recent survival. Recovered alongside the skeletal remains were stone tools from archaeological horizons ranging from 94,000 to 13,000 years ago. Some of the tools are sophisticated stone implements. The artifacts are all of the size considered appropriate for a 1-meter-tall human population.

Archaeologist Mike Morwood and his colleagues have proposed that a variety of features, both primitive and derived, identify these bones as belonging to a new species. A study of the bones and joints of the arm, shoulder and lower limbs concluded that H. floresiensis was more similar to early humans and apes than modern humans. Some less obvious features that might distinguish H. floresiensis from modern Homo sapiens is the form of the teeth, and the lesser angle in the head of the humerus (upper arm bone). Each of these distinguishing examples has been heavily scrutinized by certain members of the scientific community.

Aside from a smaller body size, the overall specimen seems to resemble Homo erectus. Additional features used to argue for the discovery of a new population of previously unidentified hominids include the absence of a chin, the relatively low twist of the arm bones, and the thickness of the creature’s leg bones. The feet of H. floresiensis are unusually flat in relation to the rest of the body. As a result, when walking, the creature would have to bend its knees further back than modern people do. For this reason, it was not able to move very fast.

The species toes have an unusual shape and the big toe is very short. Local geology suggests that a volcanic eruption on the Island of Flores approximately 12,000 years ago could have been responsible for the demise of H. floresiensis, along with other local fauna, including the elephant species Stegodon. In early December of 2004, paleoanthropologist Teuku Jacob removed most of the Hobbit remains from their repository. The priceless artifacts were damaged upon return. The only pelvis was smashed, ultimately destroying details that reveal body shape, gait and evolutionary history.

Aedes-Mosquito-1

The question: Why are Humans Creating and Releasing Genetically Modified Mosquitoes?

Operation Drop Kick was a 1956 U.S. entomological warfare field testing program that modified and deployed the yellow fever mosquito. The goal of the project was to use the mosquito to carry and release a biological warfare agent. The concept was simply to drop a large collection of diseased mosquitoes over a populated area. Operation Drop Kick included a 1956 test in Savannah, Georgia, where uninfected mosquitoes were released in a residential neighborhood, and another 1956 test in Avon Park, Florida, where 600,000 diseased mosquitoes were released on the city.

Between the years 1956-1957, several U.S. Army biological warfare experiments were conducted in the city of Avon Park. In the experiments, Army biological weapon researchers released millions of mosquitoes on the town in order to see if the insects would spread yellow fever and dengue fever. The residents of Avon Park were not notified of the deadly experiments. Hundreds of residents contracted a wide array of illnesses, including fevers, respiratory problems, stillbirths, encephalitis and typhoid. Army researchers pretended to be public health workers, so that they could photograph and perform medical tests on the victims. Several people died as a result of the program.

The experiments in Avon Park were concentrated in low-income neighborhoods, in areas that were predominantly black with newly constructed housing projects. In 1978, a Pentagon document titled, Biological Warfare: Secret Testing & Volunteers revealed that similar experiments were conducted in Key West, Florida. Many people have raised the question of why the U.S. government was playing around with the Dengue fever virus. Dengue fever is an infectious disease that causes a number of symptoms, including severe headaches, a petechial rash and muscle and joint pains. In a small proportion the disease progresses to life-threatening complications. Since the middle of the 1950s, the rates of Dengue fever infection have increased dramatically, with approximately 50-100 million people being infected yearly. The disease has become a global epidemic in more than 110 countries with 2.5 billion people living in areas where it is prevalent.

In 2009, the British biotechnology giant Oxitec announced that they had developed a genetically-modified (GM) mosquito (OX513A) that, apart from a specific chemical antibiotic, is unable to successfully repopulate. After intense media scrutiny, the company gave a statement which indicated that the GM mosquitoes may help fight the spread of dengue fever by reducing or eliminating the wild mosquito population. In 2009, Oxitec released millions of the OX513A test mosquitoes over the Cayman Islands. Many people have questioned the decision to fight the spread of Dengue fever by using more infected mosquitoes. Nobody knows for sure what will happen when the new GM mosquitoes interact with animals and human life, or how the mosquitoes altered genes will disrupt the environment.

20051218025923!Gods Whores-Ml560

The question: How did David Berg Convince Women that Flirty Fishing was Acceptable?

In 1968, a man named David Berg developed a new religious movement named the Children of God. The group devoted their time to spreading the message of Jesus’ love and salvation. With the enforcement of strict regulations, David Berg preached about the de-Christianization and decay of moral values in Western society. He viewed the trends towards a New World Order as setting the stage for the rise of the Antichrist. Remarkably, Berg lived in seclusion, communicating with his followers and the public via nearly 3,000 Mo Letters.

In the 1970s, the Children of God began to expand to all areas of the world. David Berg discussed a message of salvation, apocalypticism, and spiritual revolution against the outside world, which the members called the System. The group’s liberal stance on sexuality led to concerns and investigations regarding child abuse. However, the most publicized practice organized by David Berg and the Children of God was named Flirty Fishing. Flirty Fishing is a form of religious prostitution that was practiced by the Children of God from 1974-1987. The term refers to Matthew 4:19 from the New Testament, in which Jesus tells two fishermen that he will make them “fishers of men.”

Cult leader David Berg extrapolated from this that women in his movement should be flirty fishers, with the targeted men being called “fish.” The cult published several documents with instructions for young women. Flirty Fishing was defined as using sex appeal for proselytizing. If masturbation, oral, or penetrative sex ensued, this was termed as “loving sexually” and counted as more brownie points within the group. The Children of God claimed that the purpose of Flirty Fishing was for women to show God’s love to men, to win converts for the group, and to garner material and financial support.

The cult members regularly lived in communes, traveled around the world and spent their time proselytizing rather than earning a regular income. For this reason the financial aspect of Flirty Fishing soon became dominant. The cult used the practice to curry favors with local men of influence such as business men, politicians or police. Women who objected to being what the cult itself blatantly described as “God’s whores” or “hookers for Jesus” were admonished not to “let self and pride enter in.” They were continually reminded that their body didn’t really belong to them as according to 1 Corinthians 6:19–20. Many of the Flirty Fishers had boyfriends or were married, or had children.

In family publications, Flirty Fishers and Escort Services frequently reported that they found their work hard, dangerous and exhausting. The financial benefit of Flirty Fishing quickly led to a regular Escort Servicing (ESing) operation within the cult. The Children of God practiced Flirty Fishing and Escort Servicing from 1974 until 1987, when it was officially abandoned, partially because of the AIDS epidemic. During this time, the women were expected to keep an exact record of their “fruits.” A 1988 statistic showed that more than 223,000 men had been “fished.” The cult generally discouraged birth control and for this reason many of the ladies became pregnant. Among the Children of God organization (today’s Family International), the unwed children were labeled Jesus babies.

Roopkund-Skeleton-Lake

The question: Who Died at Skeleton Lake?

One of the greatest mysteries of the Himalayas is a small glacial lake named Roopkund. The lake is located in the Uttarakhand state of India, at an altitude of about 5,029 meters (16,499 feet). The area surrounding the lake is completely uninhabited and the water is a five day treacherous hike from civilization. In 1942, Roopkund gained the name Skeleton Lake when over five hundred human skulls, bones and artifacts were discovered surrounding and inside the ice. These human bones have baffled scientists for decades because historians don’t understand who these people were or what they were doing so high in the mountains. Roopkund was never a historically significant region and no traces of any trade routes to Tibet have been found.

The documentary Skeleton Lake, made by the National Geographic Channel, claimed that Roopkund was the venue for the Garhwali religious festival called Nanda Jaat yatra, which is held every 12 years, but facts supporting this claim are limited. It was originally believed by specialists that the people died from an epidemic, landslide or blizzard, but after an archaeological team examined the site in 2004, it was determined that the skulls contained severe head trauma. Based on this evidence it has been hypothesized that the people died from a sudden hailstorm. It has been suggested that the hailstones were as large as tennis balls, and with no shelter in the open Himalayas, all of the people perished in the storm.

Probably the most remarkable discovery came after scientists conducted DNA tests on the bones, which proved to have a rich source of DNA material. The bodies were dated to AD 850 with a possible mistake up to 30 years. This date was 600 years earlier than initially reported. Remarkably, the experts have found that the dead individuals belonged to two different teams. One team is marked by a shorter stature of the skeletons, while the other human bones are significantly taller. The recorded DNA genetic mutations have caught the attention of the scientific community. It remains unclear exactly who these people were? What they looked like or why they were traveling in this remote area of the Himalayas?

Lake Toba-1

The question: How many Humans were Left on Earth after the Toba Supereruption?

Lake Toba is the largest volcanic lake in the world. It is located in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, with a surface elevation of about 900 meters (2,953 ft). Lake Toba is the site of a supervolcanic eruption that occurred 69,000-77,000 years ago. The event was followed by a massive climate change on Earth. The eruption is believed to have had a VEI intensity of 8, and is thought to be the largest explosive eruption anywhere on Earth in the last 25 million years. The eruption took place in Indonesia, but it deposited an ash layer approximately 15 centimeters thick over the entirety of South Asia.

Since the discovery of the catastrophe, a wide range of theories have been studied and proposed hypothesizing on how large the explosion was and how it impacted the human population on Earth. The Toba catastrophe theory is an idea that was developed and has been supported by various anthropologists and archeologists. The theory suggests that the Lake Toba volcanic eruption had a massive global consequence on Earth, killing almost all humans and creating a population bottleneck in Central Eastern Africa and India. The theory holds that the Lake Toba supervolcanic event plunged the planet into a 6-to-10-year volcanic winter, which resulted in the world’s human population being reduced to 10,000 or even a mere 1,000 breeding pairs, creating a noticeable effect in human evolution.

It has been argued that the Toba eruption produced not only a catastrophic volcanic winter but also an additional 1,000 year cooling episode. The Toba event is the most closely studied supereruption in history. In 1993, science journalist Ann Gibbons first suggested a link between the eruption and a bottleneck in human evolution. According to the bottleneck theory, genetic evidence suggests that all humans alive today, despite an apparent variety, are descended from a very small population, perhaps between 1,000 to 10,000 breeding pairs about 70,000 years ago. The theory suggests that the volcanic eruption isolated and eliminated entire groups of people, causing worldwide vegetation destruction and severe drought in the tropical rainforest belt.

The Lake Toba supereruption may have caused modern human races to differentiate abruptly only 70,000 years ago, rather than gradually over one million years. However, this theory is largely debated in the world of archeology. Modern research conducted by archaeologist Michael Petraglia and other scientists has cast major doubt on the Toba catastrophic theory. We do understand that a major human migration occurred during this time in history. Recent analyses of mitochondrial DNA have set the estimate for the migration from Africa at 60,000–70,000 years ago, which is in line with the dating of the Toba eruption. During the subsequent tens of thousands of years, the descendants of these migrants populated Australia, East Asia, Europe and, finally, the Americas.

Adolf Hitler

The question: How would your Life be Different if Adolf Hitler Died in 1936?

The Second World War changed the landscape of human life on Earth. In January of 1933, the ailing German leader Paul von Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as the Chancellor of Germany. Paul von Hindenburg passed various legislative acts that suspended German civil liberties and gave Hitler administrative control over the entire country. In 1933, the era of Nazi Germany began and Hitler laid out plans for world conquest. Adolf Hitler was a master of deception and media propaganda. In 1934, he began to display the message “One people, One Germany, One Führer.” Hitler made sure to trick foreign powers into thinking that Germany was a safe place to live. In fact, Adolf Hitler was named the U.S. Time Magazine person of the year in 1938.

During this time in German history, Adolf Hitler took control over the youth. He passed laws that forced German teachers to use Nazi propaganda. German children were taught to despise Jewish people and to show all loyalty to the Third Reich. He organized a program called Hitler’s Youth, which recruited all kids over the age of nine years. Between the years 1936-1938, over 8 million German children took part in Hitler’s Youth oath of allegiance. In 1935, Hitler passed the first laws against the Jewish population. He ordered that all Jewish people were no longer German citizens. Marriage and sexual intercourse between Germans and Jews was outlawed. At this time, Hitler pushed thousands of white Arian German women into pregnancy. He demanded that teenage girls attend Nuremberg rally camps, where they had sexual intercourse with boys and became pregnant. In 1936, nine hundred girls came home from the Nuremberg rally pregnant. Unwed mothers were knows as the Führer’s brides.

In 1938, Hitler annexed Austria under Nazi rule. This was accomplished because Mussolini’s Fascist Italy made an alliance with the Third Reich and no longer was protecting Austria. Many people welcomed Hitler into Austria, but within days of the move, 70,000 Austrians were sent to concentration camps. During the Second World War German armies occupied most of Europe. Nazi forces defeated France, took Norway, invaded Yugoslavia and Greece and occupied much of the European portion of the Soviet Union. Germany also forged alliances with Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and, later, Finland, and collaborated with individuals in several other nations.

Hitler’s decision to launch Operation Barbarossa and attack the Soviet Union turned the tide of war. Had Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin remained in alliance how would your life be different today? Would the United States nuclear technology have been used in the European Theatre of World War II? How much influence could one man, Adolf Hitler, really have on the rise of the Third Reich in Germany? All of these questions should be considered when examining your ancestry and this dark time in human history.

Read more: http://listverse.com/2011/01/10/10-questions-to-make-you-think/